Most people around the world know Amazon because of its online shopping portal which sells everything from fresh groceries all the way to books. But what most people tend to ignore is the fact that the most profitable growth of the company is contributed by its sales and development in cloud computing with Amazon Web Services (AWS).
AWS has seen steady growth over the past couple of years and this year it is set to hit the 12 billion US dollar mark, making it one of the fastest-growing and most profitable tech enterprises of all.
Being such a mammoth in the tech industry and considering the fact that it is growing so fast, it is easy to assume that the need for professionals who run this place is growing at a steady scale as well. Not only engineers, but there are a number of AWS Jobs you may land. As a fresher, you can get the AWS cloud practitioner certification and start your AWS journey.
The AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner exam helps beginners to start their AWS career. Candidates preparing for the AWS Cloud Practitioner certification should go for the AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner practice exam to prepare themselves for the exam. After that, you can move to AWS associate certification, professional certification, and specialty certification respectively.
In this article, we will cover the top 50 AWS interview questions with detailed answers that will help you to crack an AWS interview. Whether you are going for an AWS Architect, AWS SyOps, or AWS Admin role, these interview questions will help you in the interview. You should go through these questions if you want to land a job in AWS this year.
Let’s get started.
Top AWS Interview Questions for Freshers
This section covers some of the most common AWS interview questions and answers for freshers who intend to start their career in Amazon Web Services. These are the basic AWS interview questions that may be asked in an AWS interview whether the candidate be a fresher or experienced.
1. Define Amazon Web Services or AWS.
Answer: This is one of the most basic AWS interview questions and can be answered in both simple and complex structures, depending on the interviewer.
According to the terminology, AWS or Amazon Web Services is defined as a platform which is designed to provide secure cloud services, computing power to clients, database storage options, content delivery and many other services which are all intended towards business development and growth.
2. List out the main components of AWS.
Answer: Similar to other Cloud Services in the industry, AWS too has been designed in a structured manner and has several key components. Mentioned below is the list of the same:
Amazon Route 53: This is a DNS (Domain Name Service) web service. Also, check Route 53 Pricing to know more.
Easy Email Service: This service allows customers and clients to address email utilization through normal SMTP or RESTFUL API.
Access Management and Identity: This has been designed in order to provide heightened identity control and protection for a client’s AWS account.
S3 or Simple Storage Device: It is a very well-known utility among all the AWS Services and is mainly used in warehouse equipment.
EC2 or Elastic Compute Cloud: This is a utility designed to manage variable workloads and gives clients the ability to afford on-demand computing sources for hosting.
EBS or Elastic Block Store: This particular utility is used to expand beyond EC2 and is designed to connect EC2 to enable the lifespan of data beyond the capacities of EC2.
Cloud Watch: This is mainly a crisis management utility and is designed to help managers inspect and obtain additional resources in the light of a crisis.
Want to become an AWS Certified Architect? Start your preparation now for the AWS Certified Solutions Architect Associate exam.
3. What do you know about Buffer in AWS?
Answer: A buffer is necessary in any cloud computing technology in order to maintain seamless integration across a huge flow of traffic and loads. The Elastic Load Balancer in Amazon Web Services has been designed in a way to ensure that all the incoming traffic is optimally distributed across all channels of AWS instances.
The presence of a buffer enables the components to work in an unstable situation and receive and process requests as it gets them. Essentially the presence of a buffer is needed to create an equilibrium between all the apparatus and provide them with an identical ability to supply more rapid services.
4. How can you secure your data in the cloud?
Answer: One of the most important aspects of cloud computing is its security. It must be ensured at all times that no individual or organization is able to seize the data of a client while in a transition from one point to another and also there shouldn’t be any leakage of information from any of the several storerooms in the cloud. Thus one of the most effective ways of securing information is by segregating it and then encrypting the same by one of the mutually agreed options.
5. List out the different services offered by cloud computing.
Answer: There have been a number of public and private cloud platforms developed these days. All of these are composed of several services/layers of cloud computing. Mentioned below is a list of the same:
PaaS: It is the acronym for Platform as a Service.
IaaS: It is the acronym for Infrastructure as a Service.
SaaS: It is the acronym for Software as a Service.
6. Can Amazon Instance be vertically scaled? If yes, how?
Answer: Yes, it is very much possible to vertically scale an Amazon Instance. Here’s how:
- Form and twist a fresh massive instance on top of the currently governing instance.
- Make an attempt to delay the current instance and separate the source web mass of dispatch and server.
- The next step is to quit your existing instance and separate the same from source quantity.
- Take note of the new machine ID and connect the same source mass to your fresh server.
- Make it a point to study AWS Training Online from Real Time Experts.
7. Name the basic components of Amazon Web Services.
Answer: Amazon Web Services or AWS consists of 4 main components that are as listed below:
Amazon S3: This component has been designed to enable one to retrieve information which has been occupied in creating the cloud structural design and also retrieve the produced information as a consequence of the specified key.
Amazon EC2 instance: This component has been designed in order to run automatic parallelization and also achieve job scheduling. This instance is immensely helpful in running a large distributed system on the Hadoop Cluster.
Amazon SimpleDB: This component helps in the storage of the transitional positional log and also run the errands when they are executed by the client or the consumer.
Amazon SQS: This component has been mainly designed to act as a mediator between different controllers. This is an additional cushioning for the managers at Amazon.
Also Read: AWS Solutions Architect Interview Questions
AWS EC2 Interview Questions
This section has been designed to contribute some important AWS interview questions based on EC2 instance. This section comprises the important part of the blog best AWS interview questions and answers. Mentioned below are 7 most common AWS Interview Questions based on EC2.
8. Define Amazon EC2.
Answer: This is one of the most basic and frequently asked EC2 based Amazon AWS interview questions and can be explained in very simple terms.
Amazon EC2 service is the acronym for Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud which has been designed to provide its customers with resizable and scalable computing capacity when they are using the cloud. Using the service of Amazon EC2, a client is able to launch as many virtual servers as he wants. In each of these virtual servers, the client is able to manage storage as well as configure security as and when needed. The main advantage of using Amazon EC2 is its ability to get everything done with minimal friction at all times.
9. List out all the best security practices for AWS EC2.
Answer: As a client who is using the service of Amazon EC2, there are some security best practices that needs to be followed at all times. The same is as outlined below.
- Use the AWS identity and access management to control and limit access to all your AWS resources at all times.
- You should only allow trusted networks and hosts to have access to all ports to the instance.
- Regularly review all the groups on your security schedule regularly.
- Only allow permission to the ports that are utmost required.
- One of the most important security measures that need to be taken is to disable the password-based login, as this is often the point of most security compromise.
Check out: AWS EC2 Study Notes
10. Explain Stopping, Starting, and Terminating an Amazon EC2 instance.
Answer: Stopping and Starting an instance are the most common commands used on the Amazon EC2 platform. Questions based on these commands are considered one of the best AWS interview questions. Mentioned below is the explanation of the commands.
Once the command for stopping an instance is issued, the instance first performs a normal shutdown and then transitions itself to a stopped state. All the Amazon EBS volumes remained attached as they were, and you can resume the instance at a later stage. One of the main advantages of this feature is that Amazon doesn’t charge you additionally for the hours while the instance was in a stopped state.
When you issue the termination command to an instance, the instance first performs a normal shutdown and then moves ahead with detaching the existing Amazon EBS volumes. This can only be achieved if the deleteOnTermination attribute is set to false in the Amazon EBS settings. Once terminated, the client cannot resume the instance at a later stage.
11. Can S3 be cast-off with EC2 Instances, If yes specify how?
Answer: Yes, it is possible to cast off with EC2 instances by using root approaches which have the backup of native occurrence storage. When a developer or a client is using Amazon S3 services, they have the capability to use extremely scalable and additionally fast, dependable, low priced data storage structures that are used by Amazon itself to track the worldwide network of its own websites.
However, in order to perform these operations in the Amazon EC2 atmosphere, developers need to use certain tools in order to load their Amazon Machine Images (AMIs) into Amazon S3 and then transfer them back to Amazon EC2. The additional use of this method might be when developers need to load stationary content into S3 from their websites hosted on Amazon EC2.
Note: CIDR is one of the important terms an AWS Network Engineer should know about. CIDR offers the benefits of effective management of available IP address space and reduces the number of routing table entries. If you are still wondering what does CIDR stand for, learn more!
12. Define regions and availability zones in Amazon EC2.
Answer: Being such a mammoth in the industry, it is common knowledge that Amazon EC2 will be hosted in multiple locations across the world. These worldwide locations are categorized in terms of availability zones as well as regions.
Each of these regions is completely independent of the other and each availability zone is isolated as well. But all the availability zones in a particular region are interconnected through multiple low latency links.
13. What is Amazon EC2 Root Device Volume?
Answer: When you as a developer launch an instance, the root device volume has the image that was used to boot up the instance in the first place.
There are two types of AMIs or Amazon Machine Images that are available:
- EBS based storage, and
- Instance store-backed AMI
14. Are you aware of the Security Group in Amazon EC2? Tell me something about it.
Answer: Security groups in Amazon EC2 are one of the ways through which the security of the cloud network is protected. They act as a firewall and are used for controlling both the inbound as well as outbound traffic at the level of the instance.
AWS S3 Interview Questions
This section covers AWS S3 based AWS interview questions for the aspiring candidates going for an Amazon interview. Read on to find out the top AWS interview questions based on S3 that you may come across in the interview.
15. Which of the following is a method for bidding on unused EC2 capacity based on the current spot price?
Answer: Spot Instance is the best method for bidding on unused EC2 capacity since this feature requires an affordable low price and the availability of the system varies depending on the availability of excess capacity.
16. Is this statement wrong, why?
“The standard instances are not suitable for standard server applications”
Answer: Yes, the statement is wrong because the standard instances are deemed suitable only for standard server applications.
17. Which instance has an hourly rate with no long-term commitment?
Answer: On-Demand Instance has an hourly rate with no long-term commitment because the pricing of this feature varies with the pricing model, instance as well as zone.
18. Which Amazon cloud-based storage system allows you to store data objects ranging in size from 1 byte up to 5GB?
Answer: Amazon S3 cloud-based storage system allows you to store data objects ranging in size from 1 byte up to 5GB. It is because, in S3 containers, storage containers are often referred to as buckets.
19. Which operation retrieves the newest version of the object?
Answer: GET operation retrieves the newest version of the object since the versioning can also be used for archiving purposes as well as preserving data.
20. How can the request be sent to Amazon S3?
Answer: As we all know that Amazon S3 is a rest service. The request can be sent either by using the REST API or using AWS SDK wrapper libraries which can be used to wrap the Amazon S3 REST API.
Also Read: How to secure files in Amazon S3?
AWS Autoscaling and Load Balancer Interview Questions
Autoscaling and load balancer are the important features of AWS services and the interviewer may ask many of the AWS interview questions based on these features in the interview. These important topics can’t be ignored, so here we cover AWS interview questions based on Autoscaling and load balancer. Let’s read out.
21. What is auto-scaling and how does it work?
Answer: Auto-scaling is one of the most important features that Amazon Web Service provides that gives you an allowance to configure and automatically stipulate and also twists new instances without even your intervention. This can be done by setting the edges and measurements to screen.
At the point when those edges have crossed another instance based on your preference will be spun up, rolled, and configured into the load balancer pool. Now, you would’ve scaled that horizontally without the intervention of an operator.
22. What is Server Load Balancing?
Answer: SLB (Server Load Balancing) provides the performance of the network and also it delivers the content by the implementation of a series of priorities as well as algorithms which helps in responding to the precise requests that are made to the network. In other words Server Load Balancing (SLB) takes the part of distributing the clients to a vast group of some servers and that also ensures that the clients which are sent are only sent to the specific servers and not to the failed servers.
23. What is Global Server Load Balancing (GSLB) and does Clustering need to be turned on in order to use GSLB?
Answer: GSLB (Global Server Load Balancing) is very much similar to SLB (Server Load Balancing) but GSLB takes SLB to a global scale. It authenticates us to stack balance VIPs from various geographical locations as well as a single entity. From this, the geographic site gets scalability and fault tolerance.
Yes, you must turn on clustering and also configure it in order to use Global Server Load Balancing. Each and every proxy that comes within the site or cluster must acquire the same configuration. So, every piece of equipment can act as a DNS server if that becomes the master for the site. Each of the sites will be having a unique SLB/GSLB/Cluster configuration, and you will have to use the GSLB site overflow command so that the remote GSLB site can be added to the local appliance.
24. What are the automation tools that can be used to spin up the servers?
Answer: The use of AWS API is the most prominent way to roll your own scripts. The scripts like this can be written in any language of one’s choice like bash or python. Another option is that we can use configuration management and also provisioning the tool like its puppet or it can be better when the successor Opcode Chef can be used.
There is one more prominent option which is Ansible because the need of an agent is not required, and also the shell scripts can run as it is. The Cloudformation and Terraform are the things which you might look towards and in the end, the whole infrastructure can be captured by the resulting code, and all of this can be checked in the git repository.
25. What are those load balancing methods which are supported with array network GSLB and also explain Reverse Proxy Cache?
Answer: The following methods of Global Server Load Balancing are supported by Array appliance.
- Overflow: Overflow method allows all the requests to be sent to the different remote site when the local site id loaded up to 80%
- lc: “lc” here stands for Least Connections, it sends the clients to the site which has the least count of current connections.
- rr: “rr” here stands for Round Robin, it sends the clients in the round robin suction to each site.
Reverse Proxy Cache is a cache that is presented In the front of the origin servers. That’s the reason for using the reverse term in the name. If a request of the cached object is made by the client then the request will be served from the cache and not from the origin server by the proxy.
26. What are the challenges in microservices debugging and troubleshooting?
Answer: In the serverless world, debugging and troubleshooting is the most difficult process. The log error and warning messages are logged in CloudWatch. This is the area that needs attention and Amazon is working on it.
Also Read: Top 20 AWS VPC Interview Questions
AWS Elastic Beanstalk Interview Questions
Whether you are a beginner or have gained some experience in AWS, you may be asked one or more Elastic Beanstalk based AWS interview questions in the interview. So, this section is focused on the best AWS interview questions based on Elastic Beanstalk. Keep the reading on to get an answer to the top AWS interview questions.
27. What is Elastic Beanstalk?
Answer: Elastic Beanstalk provides the basic services which help in the creation of Environment. It also provides services like managing the application environments which include the creation of logs, health, and monitoring, etc.
28. Mention few benefits of the elastic beanstalk.
Answer: The Beanstalk is easy for beginners and most flexible. Deployment of the application on AWS is easy. Various tools like Visual Studio are used to upload the applications. The deployment details of capacity monitoring and auto-scaling can be easily managed by AWS Beanstalk.
Demand Scaling: The application can be auto-scaled which helps in the handling of workload or traffic while minimizing the cost for the application.
Control over Tools: Tools and resources like Amazon EC2 instance type could be easily controlled.
Best productivity and security features: Security and configuration of servers, management of the database, firewalls are some features provided by AWS EBS.
29. Mention some of the advantages of AWS Elastic Beanstalk.
Answer: Some of the benefits of AWS EBS are as follows:
- EBS is economical with no hidden costs. You will pay what you will use.
- The AWS management console can be accessed within an hour with its fast access.
- IT supports languages like Java, .NET, PHP, Node.js, Python, Ruby, etc.
- AWS EBS builds the setup and spectators the AWS service for the creation of web services.
30. Mention some of the advantages of AWS Elastic Beanstalk.
Answer: Some of the demerits of using AWS Beanstalk are:
- If there is a deployment failure then no notification is shown. So further steps also are full of deployment failures.
- If you terminate the instance or recover the EBS, it won’t work.
- There is no information on new stack update though it updates itself regularly.
- For just two front-end server deployment process can take up to 15 minutes also.
31. What are the operating systems used by Elastic Beanstalk?
Answer: AWS Beanstalk requires a stable, high-performance, secure environment for execution for Amazon EC2 cloud computing. So there are two EMI’s which are maintained by AWS. Amazon Linux AMI and Windows Server 2012 R2 AMI are two OS which runs Amazon Elastic Beanstalk.
32. How to make any application private?
Answer: In myapp.elasticbeanstalk.com the application is public by default. Amazon VPC should be used to make the virtual network private. Specific security group rules are also there to make the application private.
Also Read: Top AWS Database Interview Questions
AWS Lambda Interview Questions
Designed in a way to run applications in a serverless computing platform, AWS Lambda is one of the most unique offerings of AWS. Lambda-based AWS interview questions constitute the main part of the lastest AWS interview questions. So, we cover this section to help you go through the AWS interview.
33. What do you mean by AWS Lambda?
Answer: If you talk about a serverless compute service then AWS Lambda offers the best service. The codes can be run and managed without managing servers. You just pay for the consumption of data in computing. When you are idle you do not have to pay anything. Just an upload of code is needed and rest is managed by Lambda.
34. Mention the time span in which the AWS Lambda function will execute.
Answer: All the process of AWS Lambda and execution takes place within 300 seconds from placing calls to AWS Lambda. The default timeout is 3 seconds rest you can setup any value between 1 to 300 seconds.
35. Can Lambda be vertically scaled? If yes, how?
Answer: This is one of the most prominent features of AWS Lambda. When a larger instance is to be spin then we use vertical scaling. If there is scaling in use then it has to be paused and has to be detached from the server. The ID of new device post is to be noted down to continue the process.
36. Mention the role of SQS in Lambda.
Answer: There is a certain approach which is used for sharing of information and passing that information among different hosts and connectors and communication can be established. The functional components could be connected even if they are different. There are many advantages of using SQS and several of the failures are eliminated.
37. What are the Final variables?
Answer: Once assigned these variables cannot be changed. In its earlier stage, they are known as effective variables where any form of change is possible and the values are assigned to them. They also play an important role in testing. Most of the local expressions are final.
38. How can performance be improved in Lambda?
Answer: There are some of the methods by which performance can be improved in Lambda. You can improve the performance by using Linux software RAID and with the help of RAID, we can be assured of better security.
AWS Developer Interview Questions and Answers
If you are going for the interview of AWS developer role, you may come across AWS interview questions belonging to different AWS services and their features. So, this section is focused on AWS interview questions for the developer. Go through the below mentioned AWS interview questions to ace the AWS developer interview.
39. Define Automate Deployment.
Answer: This method is similar in many ways to programming in other languages. However, the unique advantages of this platform is that it helps in cutting down a lot of challenges. One of the best things is, the deployment can be made as one becomes more proficient with other offerings of the service. Using Automated deployment clients can minimize human interference and also ensure that the outcomes are quality based in every aspect.
40. List out the different ways to access EC2.
Answer: EC2 can be accessed both via web-based Interface and also Command Line Interface. Additionally, there are Powershell tools available in Windows which can be simply executed.
41. What are the advantages of using the serverless approach?
Answer: Using the serverless approach has multiple advantages. Mentioned below is a list of the same:
- The approach is utterly simple which converts to quicker time to market and thus higher sales.
- Clients are only required to pay when the code is in operation, thus a huge amount of money can be saved in enhanced profits.
- Clients do not need any additional infrastructure in order to run this application.
- Clients do not need to give any second thought on the server which is running the code.
Also Read: AWS OpsWorks
42. Is it possible to debug and troubleshoot the small or microservices?
Answer: Yes, it is very much possible to debug and troubleshoot small as well as microservices. The unique feature enables it to be done even when appropriate tasks are being performed in the background.
43. Why is Lambda regarded as a time-saving approach?
Answer: The main reasons due to which Lambda is considered as a time-saving approach are as follows:
- All the data can be simply stored in the local server memory.
- The data can be stored directly into the database without affecting their performance.
- Integration testing is highly powerful and can be made through multiple vendors.
44. What is your opinion About Zero Downtime Deployment?
Answer: Deployments are most commonly considered in the form of functions. The advantageous feature of AWS Lambda is that it divides the functions into cases when they are hugely complex. The app in these scenarios remains offline during such a time period, but the end result is always great and of high quality.
AWS CloudWatch Interview Questions
Amazon CloudWatch is a part of the Amazon Web Services family and is a management tool which is developed for system architects, administrators as well as developers. In order to have your best shot at cracking an AWS interview, here are the most common AWS interview questions for AWS aspirants.
45. Define Amazon Cloudwatch.
Answer: As mentioned above, Amazon CloudWatch is a management tool and is a part of the Amazon Web Services family. It is basically a monitoring service for AWS cloud resources and all applications run on the AWS platform.
CloudWatch can be used to track and collect metrics, set alarms, collect and monitor log files, and also monitor resources such as EC2 instances, RDS DB instances, and DynamoDB tables.
46. Name the operating systems on which CloudWatch runs.
Answer: CloudWatch is a truly versatile system and it is capable of receiving and providing metrics for all EC2 instances and currently works on any operating system supported by EC2.
47. What kinds of things can I do with CloudWatch logs?
Answer: As CloudWatch is capable of storing and monitoring a client’s logs and help them better understand how their systems and applications are operating.
CloudWatch can be used to log in multiple ways, which are as mentioned below:
- Long-term log retention
- Real-Time application and system monitoring
Read Now: Amazon Braket
48. Which platforms support CloudWatch Logs Agent?
Answer: The CloudWatch logs agent is supported by a number of operating systems and platforms. The list of the same is as mentioned below:
- Amazon Linux
- Red Hat Enterprise Linux
49. Does the CloudWatch logs agent support IAM roles?
Answer: Yes, the CloudWatch logs agent is very much capable of supporting and integrating with IAM and has access to both keys and IAM roles.
Amazon KMS (AWS Key Management) is a managed service that is integrated with various other AWS Services. You can use it in your applications to create, store and control encryption keys to encrypt your data. Learn AWS KMS Key Management Service.
50. List out the retention period of all metrics.
Answer: CloudWatch retains all its metrics accordingly as mentioned in the table below.
- Any data points or high-resolution custom metrics with a span of fewer than 60 seconds are available for 3 hours.
- Data points with a period of 60 seconds are available for 15 days.
- Data points with a period of 5 minutes are available for 63 days.
- Data points with a period of 1 hour are available for 455 days or 15 months.
Also Read: Which AWS Certification should I choose?
Landing a job at Amazon AWS is a dream come true for many. With the above set of AWS interview questions and answers, you will surely have a better chance of cracking the interview. What is more important here, you should not get confused with the related term. For example, some candidates might be stuck with the terms SysOps and DevOps, being similar. So, you need to understand the terms first and get ahead.
No doubt, the above mentioned AWS interview questions will prepare you for an AWS interview. But the importance of the AWS certifications can’t be neglected in an interview that stands you out of the crowd.
So, get an AWS certification to demonstrate your skills and knowledge to the interviewer. Whizlabs AWS certifications training courses constitute a complete resource for the AWS certification preparation. If you are a beginner who is preparing for the AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner exam, you can take up the AWS cloud practitioner practice exam to check your preparation level. So, join us now to achieve your AWS certification and become a certified AWS professional.
And nothing else, AWS certification and this set of top AWS interview questions are sufficient to crack the AWS interview.
All the best!
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