It is the project manager’s job to bring the team together, get its members all headed in the right direction, and motivate it to achieve the company’s goal. Team Building exercise is a very effective tool, used to improve the team’s performance and keep the team members motivated. Motivation helps people work more efficiently and produce better results.
There are many theories on motivation. It is entirely up to the project manager, to understand them and apply as and when required.
- Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
This is the first theory that comes to an individual’s mind, according to this theory, individual strives to seek a higher need when lower needs are fulfilled. An individual moves to next step only if his previous level need is satisfied. Needs are motivators until they are not satisfied.
- Physiological needs- the lowest level, include the most basic needs for humans to survive, such as air, water and food.
- Safety or Security needs – the second level, include personal security, health, well-being and safety against accidents remain.
- Social needs – this is where people need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance. It is about social circle, friends, and relatives. Organizations fulfill this need for people.
- Self-esteem needs- fourth level, this is where people looks to be respected and to have self-respect. Accomplishment, respect for self, capability are in this level.
- Self-actualization needs – the top level, this level of need pertains to realizing the person’s potential at its peak.
2. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
Frederick Herzberg, introduced his Two Factor Theory in 1959. He postulated that two factors contribute to motivation: hygiene factors and motivators
- Hygiene factors: Examples of hygiene factors are salary, other company benefits, work culture, and relationships with peers and managers. These factors are important to prevent dissatisfaction among the employee.
- Motivators: They are intrinsic factors such as sense of recognition, responsibility, accomplishment and personal growth.
3. McClelland Achievement Need Theory
- Needs for achievement – The person with a high achievement need likes to take ownership.
- Needs for affiliation – The person who have a high need for affiliation believes in good relationships with people and tries to avoid conflicts.
- Needs for power – The person who have the desire for power wants to direct and command other people.
4. Expectancy Theory
The expectancy theory was developed by Victor H. Vroom in 1964, producing a systematic theory of motivation at workplace. This theory asserts that people become what you expect of them. If you openly praise your project team members and treat them like valuable contributors, you’ll likely have a high-performing team on your hands. On the other hand, when you criticize people in public, they will tend to live down to that expectation as well.
5. Contingency Theory
The Contingency Theory builds on a combination of Theory Y behaviors and the Hygiene Theory. This theory, says that people are motivated to achieve certain levels of competency and will continue to be motivated by this need even after competency is reached.
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