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Top 30 Kubernetes Interview Questions and Answers

Kubernetes has been noted quite widely in many circles related to the use of container technologies. This has been one of the reasons for large scale demand for Kubernetes interview questions. However, before looking for the best Kubernetes interview questions, you need to have a basic idea about Kubernetes itself.

In the most basic sense, Kubernetes can be described as a cluster and container management tool. It is not dependent on vendors and is an open-source tool that provides a platform for automation of deployment, operations, and scaling of application containers across host clusters. The applications of Kubernetes have been associated with considerably lower costs for cloud computing expenses. Also, it has been a promising instrument in the simplification of architecture as well as operations.

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30 Best Kubernetes Interview Questions and Answers

With this basic information on Kubernetes, let us start this discussion on the most popular Kubernetes interview questions and answers. These are the most frequently asked in a Kubernetes interview by the interviewer. So, if you are preparing for a Kubernetes interview, these questions will help you ace the interview. Let’s get ahead!

1. What is Kubernetes?

Answer: The first entry in this list of Kubernetes interview questions is probably one of the most basic ones. However, the majority of interviewers never skip this basic question.

The most applicable response would be that Kubernetes is an open-source tool for container management, and it is responsible for deployment, scaling, and descaling of containers. Kubernetes is also helpful for load balancing. As a product of Google, Kubernetes allows access to a large community and flexibility for working with the majority of cloud providers. In simple words, Kubernetes can be described as a multi-container management solution rather than as a container platform.

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2. What is the relation between Docker and Kubernetes?

Answer: This is one of the most common questions asked in a Kubernetes interview. You can find this question commonly in all the lists of Kubernetes interview questions. The candidate should answer this question as Docker is a platform used for lifecycle management of containers with a Docker image, responsible for building runtime containers. However, Kubernetes is the solution for communication between the individual containers. Therefore, Kubernetes helps in manual linking and orchestration of containers running on multiple hosts created using Docker. Let us move towards the next entry in Kubernetes interview questions.

3. What is the difference between Kubernetes and Docker Swarm?

Answer: The third entry is also one of the top Kubernetes interview questions. The answer to this Kubernetes interview question would be a little detailed with a focus on different points. The difference points include installation and cluster configuration, GUI, auto-scaling, data volume, scalability, load balancing, logging and monitoring, and rolling updates and rollbacks. Here are the main points of difference between Kubernetes and Docker Swarm.

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  • Kubernetes has a complicated setup with the assurance of a robust cluster while Docker Swarm is easier to set up but without a robust cluster.
  • The scalability of Docker Swarm is five times faster than Kubernetes. Kubernetes provides a dashboard as GUI while Docker Swarm does not have any GUI.
  • Kubernetes is capable of auto-scaling while Docker Swarm cannot. However, Kubernetes needs manual intervention for load balancing of traffic as compared to the automatic load balancing in Docker Swarm.
  • Kubernetes has integrated tools for logging and monitoring, unlike Docker Swarm, which needs third party tools for the same.
  • Kubernetes is limited in term of data volumes as it can share storage with other containers in the same pod while Docker swarm could share storage volumes with other containers easily.
  • The final point is the ability of Kubernetes to deploy rolling updates and automatic rollbacks. On the other hand, Docker Swarm could deploy rolling updates but does not have the ability for automatic rollbacks.

4. What is Container orchestration?

Answer: The answer to another one of the frequently asked Kubernetes interview questions shall be based on an example. If there are around 8 or 10 microservices for an application, and each of them is placed in separate containers, it would create obstacles for communication. Therefore, container orchestration becomes mandatory in such cases. Orchestration helps in enabling all services in individual containers to work in unison for accomplishing goals of a single server.

Note: If you’re aspiring to become a Kubernetes Certified Administrator? Start your preparation for the Kubernetes Certified Administrator exam.

5. What are the notable features of Kubernetes?

Answer: The coverage of best Kubernetes interview questions would also include “What are the notable features of Kubernetes”? You can point out the distinct features of automated scheduling, horizontal scaling, load balancing and self-healing capabilities as well as automated rollouts and rollbacks.

6. How can Kubernetes help in deployment with containers?

Answer: Another mention in Kubernetes interview questions is “How can Kubernetes help in deployment with containers”? The answer to this question would refer back to the basic objective of Kubernetes. As an orchestration tool, Kubernetes helps a cluster of containers in an application running on multiple hosts to communicate with each other. Kubernetes does not depend on the type of cloud and could be implemented on a public or private cloud. Furthermore, it is also functional in monitoring, scaling, and load balancing of containers, which makes it the best choice for simple containerized deployment.

Whatever be the technology, you may come across the myths associated with that. To uncover the myths and facts behind them, read out our previous article on Kubernetes Myths and Facts.

7. Can you explain clusters in Kubernetes?

Answer: Kubernetes helps in enforcing desired state management. This means that a particular configuration could be fed into cluster services, and then the cluster services have the privilege to execute the configuration in the infrastructure. Deployment files have the configurations that need to be fed to the cluster services. When the deployment file is fed to the API, the clusters are required to figure the scheduling of pods in the environment and ensuring their execution. Therefore, Kubernetes cluster includes the API, worker nodes, and the Kubelet process run by the nodes.

8. What is Google Container Engine?

Answer: This is one of the top Kubernetes interview questions. The answer would be, Google Container Engine can be described as an open-source management platform tailored for Docker containers and clusters. It is based on Kubernetes and provides support for the clusters that run in public cloud services of Google.

9. What do you know about a node in Kubernetes?

Answer: You would also get Kubernetes interview questions like this in your interview! The answer may go like, a node can be defined as the main worker machine in a Kubernetes cluster and is also known as minions. Nodes could be executed on a VM or a physical machine, and they provide the necessary services for running pods. The master in a Kubernetes system has the privileges for managing a node.

10. What are the components in Kubernetes Architecture?

Answer: Do the latest Kubernetes interview questions focus on Kubernetes architecture like “What are the components in Kubernetes Architecture”? Of course, yes! And the response suggests that there are two major components known as the master node and the worker node. Each of the components, in turn, have individual components in them.

Also Read: Top Jenkins Interview Questions

11. How does the master node work in Kubernetes?

Answer: The answer to the question would be that the master node controls the nodes having the containers. The containers are placed inside pods, and each pod may have different containers. The pods can be deployed through the command line interface or user interface. Following that, the pods are scheduled on the nodes, and then pods are allocated to the nodes based on resource requirements.

12. What is the Kubernetes controller manager?

Answer: Another latest Kubernetes interview question is on the Kubernetes controller manager. The controller manager works as a daemon that is used for embedding controllers and garbage collection as well as namespace creation. It helps in running multiple controller processes on the master node albeit compiled together for running as a single process.

13. What are different types of controller manager?

Answer: You can find Kubernetes architecture interview questions such as “What are different types of controller manager?” The notable controller managers that can run on the master node are node controller, service account and token controller, endpoints controller, and replication controller.

14. What is etcd?

Answer: etcd is a distributed key-value store that can be helpful for coordination between distributed work. It is responsible for the storage of configuration data of Kubernetes cluster and represents the state of the cluster at a specific time.

Want to know more about Kubernetes? Check out some interesting Kubernetes facts now!

15. What are the services in Kubernetes?

Answer: You can also get Kubernetes interview questions asking about the services in Kubernetes. You can point out to the services such as node port, cluster IP, external name creation, and load balancer.

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16. What is a load balancer in Kubernetes?

Answer: It is also an important interview question commonly asked in a Kubernetes interview. You can state that load balancer is a method for exposing service, and two types of load balancers can be used in Kubernetes. The two-load balancer includes external load balancer and internal load balancer.

17. What is the role of cloud controller manager?

Answer: To answer this question, you can state that the cloud controller manager is an essential component for persistent storage, the abstraction of cloud-specific code from core Kubernetes code, and network routing.

18. Do you know anything about container resource monitoring?

Answer: Users need to have a clear impression of the performance of an application and resource utilization at different levels such as container, services, pod, and the cluster itself. Kubernetes provides these functionalities and so container resource monitoring is used.

19. What is a headless service?

Answer: A can also come across a different question in your Kubernetes interview such as “What is a headless service?”. Headless service can be described as any other normal service, albeit without any cluster IP.

20. What are the recommended security measures for Kubernetes?

Answer: It could be the next important question in your Kubernetes interview. The security measures include restriction of access to etcd, implementing regular security updates to the environment, implementation of continuous scanning for security vulnerabilities. Definition of strict resource policies, implementing network segmentation, the definition of resource quota, support for auditing, and using images from the authorized repository are also valid security measures.

21. Do you know anything about Kube-proxy?

Answer: The answer to this question would be that Kube-proxy is a network proxy that imitates the services with their configuration noted in Kubernetes API on each node.

22. What is Ingress network?

Answer: Ingress network can be described as a collection of rules that allows permission for connections into the Kubernetes cluster.

23. How is replica set different from replication controller?

Answer: You can say that the point of difference is in the use of selectors for replicating pods. Set-based selectors are applied in the replica set, and equity-based selectors are applied in replication controllers.

24. Do you know about federated clusters?

Answer: To demonstrate your knowledge about the federated cluster, you can state that federated clusters help in managing multiple Kubernetes clusters as a single cluster.

25. How can a company with distributed systems manage tasks consistently with Kubernetes?

Answer: Scenario-based Kubernetes interview questions such as “How can a company with distributed systems manage tasks consistently with Kubernetes?” can also appear in your Kubernetes interview. The response would be that Kubernetes can be used for customization of scheduling architecture and gain support for multiple container formats.

Preparing for a DevOps interview? Here we bring Top DevOps Interview Questions with detailed answers that will help you crack the interview!

26. How can a company improve efficiency and speed of technical operations with minimal costs?

Answer: This can be among another scenario-based Kubernetes interview questions in your interview. The response can imply suggestions to work on a CI/CD pipeline followed by working in the cloud and then scheduling of containers on a cluster. Kubernetes can help in the orchestration of the clusters, thereby reducing deployment time and better speed in different environments.

27. How can a company deal with a monolithic codebase issue?

Answer: The answer to this question would cover the transition of the monolithic codebase to a microservice design so that different microservices can be classified as containers. Then Kubernetes could be used for deploying and orchestrating the containers.

28. How can a company ensure optimal distribution of resources?

Answer: Kubernetes helps in the effective distribution of resources by allocating the resources that are used by a particular application.

29. Which of the following stores Kubernetes cluster data?

Answer: Multiple-choice Kubernetes questions can also be commonly observed in a Kubernetes interview, such as “Which of the following stores Kubernetes cluster data”? The options may be “Kube-API server”, “Kubelet,” “ETCD,” and “None of the above.” Here you can tick on “ETCD.”

30. Which ones are a core Kubernetes object?

Answer: Another multiple-choice Kubernetes interview question you can find in an interview is “Which ones are a core Kubernetes object”? And the options for this question can include “Pods,” “Services,” “Volumes,” and “All of the above.”

In this case, the correct choice would be “All of the above”.

Also Read: Kubernetes Myths & Facts that will help you to understand the spreaded Kubernetes myths and the facts behind them.

Bottom Line

Based on an illustration of interview questions that you can find commonly related to Kubernetes, it can be concluded that the process is intense. Learning is the foremost trick that you can try for succeeding at an interview for Kubernetes professionals. To enhance your Kubernetes knowledge and get fully prepared for the interview, we recommend you to go through our Kubernetes training course.

However, you need to stay a step ahead by practicing the most common Kubernetes interview questions that you may be asked. A clear evaluation of the questions mentioned here can also help you gain confidence in responding to an interviewer. Furthermore, observing the Kubernetes interview questions and answers could also help you make the most of the interview time to show your skillset in Kubernetes.

Go ahead and grab the opportunity!

About Dharmalingam N

Dharmalingam.N holds a master degree in Business Administration and writes on a wide range of topics ranging from technology to business analysis. He has a background in Relationship Management. Some of the topics he has written about and that have been published include; project management, business analysis and customer engagement.
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