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PMI-ACP exam questions

Free PMI Agile Certified Practitioner (PMI ACP)® Exam Questions

Preparing for PMI Agile Certified Practitioner (PMI ACP) certification exam? Looking for some free PMI ACP practice questions to help in your preparation? Here we bring the top free PMI ACP exam questions for you so that you can prepare well for the PMI ACP certification exam.

PMI Agile Certified Practitioner (PMI ACP) certification exam is for the project management professionals who follow Agile principles and use Agile methodologies in their projects.

pmi acp free test

With the experience of using Agile methodologies, the candidate must have some required experience such as

  • 1 year (or 2000 hours) of general project management experience
  • 8 months (or 1500 hours) of Agile-specific project management experience, and
  • 21 hours of training in Agile specific practices

PMI ACP certification exam recognizes and validates the expertise of the aspirants in

  • Understanding the basic Agile principles and Agile methodologies
  • Implementing Agile practices and methodologies in the projects

Practice with Free PMI ACP Exam Questions

The basic educational requirement (High school diploma, Secondary degree or Associate’s degree), and the required experience, you need to follow the right preparation guide and the useful resources for the PMI ACP exam preparation.

Following the right preparation track is the main step in the PMI ACP exam preparation but the practicing is the final step. Mock exams help a lot in checking your preparation level, making you confident, and getting you ready for the real exam.

To help you check the level of your knowledge, our subject matter experts have created a set of PMI ACP practice tests. But here we bring some of the free PMI ACP exam questions with a detailed explanation. The experts have given a detailed explanation for the correct and incorrect option as well. Try these free PMI ACP exam questions now to check the extent of your preparation for the PMI ACP Certification exam.

Let’s find out how many questions you can answer with your Agile knowledge and experience!

Give your PMI ACP preparation a new edge with this Ultimate Preparation Guide for PMI ACP exam.

1. An agile practitioner is explaining his team about the relationships between the development team and customer as well as and responsibilities of the development team and customer in agile project management. Which of the following statements is most appropriate with respect to the given?

A. The customer defines value and checks the user experience, not the development team

B. The development team sets the priority among the features, not the customer

C. The customer determines how to perform the work, not the development team

D. The development team determines which features should be developed first

Answer: Choice A is the correct answer.

Explanation: In agile project management, role and responsibilities of the customer, product owner, development team or other stakeholders are clearly defined.  The initial product scope and the corresponding features are defined by the customer or their proxies like a product owner. Not only this, these features are represented in the form of user stories and these user stories are also prioritized by the customer or the product owner according to their values that indicate which story to be developed first. Now, the actual development work is on the team. It is the development team that defines how the work will be performed or what approaches and the techniques will be followed in the development process. And finally, after the development work is completed and team handovers it to the customer, it is the customer who defines value and checks the user experience, not the development team. The customer validates whether the delivered product meets the needs and expectations of the customer and the end users.

Option A is correct. In agile project management, values and user experience is defined and checked by the customer, not the development team. So, the option the customer defines value and checks the user experience, not the development team is correct.

Option B is incorrect. It is the customer who sets the priority among the features, not the development team. So, the option the development team sets the priority among the features, not the customer is not correct.

Option C is incorrect. In agile management, it is not the customer who determines how to perform the work rather it is the development team itself that defines how the work will be performed or what approaches and the techniques will be followed. So, the option the customer determines how to perform the work, not the development team is incorrect.

Option D is incorrect. In agile project management, the development team does not determine which features should be developed first. Rather, It is done by the customer himself. So, the option the development team determines which features should be developed first is not correct.

References: Agile Practice Guide, PMI Inc. 2017, Pages 41, 52-53; Agile Project Management: Creating Innovative products, 2e, Jim Highsmith, 2009, Agile Benefits.

Hence option A is correct whereas options B, C, and D are incorrect.

2. An experienced agile practitioner has been assigned to work on two different projects at a time. In a day, on a rough approximation, he is spending 50% of his time on each of the projects. Which of the following is the type of waste that will most likely occur in such an arrangement?

A. Defects

B. Task switching

C. Partially done work

D. Motion

Answer: Choice B is the correct answer.

Explanation: Software development includes seven types of waste, these are extra features, extra processes, partially done work, motion, waiting, task switching and defects. Therefore, all given choices are examples of the waste but in the given scenario, as the agile practitioner is working on two different projects and needs to switch between the projects, it is definitely the task switching wastage.

Option A is incorrect. Defects are also a type of the waste and generally is expected to exist in the code except when the code is enough simple and the developers are quite experienced. But as the question is asking the most likely occurrence of the waste, it is definitely the task switching as the agile practitioner needs to switch between the two different projects.

Option B is correct. As the agile practitioner is working on two different projects and needs to switch between the projects, task switching wastage will definitely exist there.

Option C is incorrect. Although in the given scenario, the agile practitioner is likely to leave the one task partially completed before switching to the second task, the question is asking the most likely form of waste that is task switching in this case.

Option D is incorrect. Motion is an effort needed to move or communicate the deliverables or the information from one group to another. It is especially associated with the distributed teams. The information provided in the given question is not sufficient to reject or support this assumption, so it can’t be the correct answer.

References: What is Waste?, David Bernstein, Agile Alliance, 2016, Available on: https://www.agilealliance.org/what-is-waste/

Hence option B is correct whereas options A, C, and D are incorrect.

3. A customer, a tester, and a developer were having a conversation about using the best testing approach on their project when an agile practitioner overheard them. Which of the following approaches would an agile practitioner most likely recommend in this situation?

A. Using manual, rather than automated testing tools

B. Initiating testing later, rather than early, in the development cycle

C. Limiting the quality assurance activities to identify the defects

D. Developing code as per the results of acceptance tests

Answer: Choice D is the correct answer.

Explanation: Acceptance test-driven development (ATDD)  involves creating the tests before start developing the code. These tests basically represent the expected behavior of the functionality at an acceptance test level. In this manner, the exact behavior, the software should exhibit is determined and ‘definition of done’ is provided at a very granular level.

Option A is incorrect. Automated testing is an efficient testing approach that ensures the quick and wide test coverage of the software in an agile environment.

Option B is incorrect. Initiating testing early rather than later in the development cycle is as per best agile best practices and reduces the risk of poor quality with early quality checks.

Option C is incorrect. Limiting the quality assurance activities to identify the defects is not a good agile strategy as quality assurance is associated with both risk identification as well as preventing the defects.

Option D is correct. Developing code as per the results of acceptance tests helps in improving the quality due to the consideration of quality in the earlier phase of the development by the team.

References: Agile Practice Guide, PMI Inc. 2017, Page 56; Lean-Agile Software Development: Achieving Enterprise Agility, Alan Shalloway, Guy Beaver, James R. Trott, 2010, Testing.

Hence option D is correct whereas options A, B, and C are incorrect.

4. An agile team has been assigned to work on the development of a software product. The project leader is helping the team in prioritizing the requirements by using the dot voting technique. Which of the following is the most appropriate description of the dot voting?

A. Dot voting, also known as the 100-point method, enables customers to allocate dots to various features

B. Dot voting draws the features on a graph with axes as dots and classifies each feature by how customers will respond

C. Dot voting, also known as multi-voting, provides every attendant a fixed number of dots for voting

D. Dot voting uses a fixed number of votes to rank priorities from high to low in a simple scheme

Answer: Choice C is the correct answer.

Explanation: As there are multiple features or user stories for a product, they are needed to get prioritized. The agile team should emphasize on delivering the maximum customer value throughout the project. Dot voting, also known as multi-voting, is a scheme used for the features’ prioritization. This technique works good on a small scale and does not need any complex tools for implementation. In this technique, attendants are instructed to use common dots to be put next to their choices.

Option A is incorrect. The 100-Point method is itself a separate customer value prioritization scheme used by project stakeholders in which exactly 100 points are given to each and every participant to assign to the different features. Therefore, Dot voting and 100-point method are different and choice Dot voting, also known as the 100-point method, enables customers to allocate dots to various features is incorrect.

Option B is incorrect. The given choice Dot voting draws the features on a graph with axes as dots and classifies each feature by how customers will respond is the incorrect description of the dot voting. Rather it is the description of Kano analysis if the dots are excluded.

Option C is correct. In dot voting technique, attendants are instructed to use common dots to be put next to their choices. Dot voting, also known as multi-voting, is a scheme used for the features’ prioritization. So, the option Dot voting, also known as multi-voting, provides every attendant a fixed number of dots for voting is the most appropriate description of the dot voting.

Option D is incorrect. Dot voting uses a fixed number of votes to rank priorities from high to low in a simple scheme is not the correct description of the dot voting. Rather, it is the description of a simple technique (with the exclusion of dots).

References: PMI-ACP Exam Prep, Premier Edition: A Course in a Book for Passing the PMI Agile Certified Practitioner(PMI-ACP) Exam, Mike Griffiths, 2012.

Hence option C is correct whereas options A, B, and D are incorrect.

5. A product owner has set up a room with five laptops and invited four different end users to test the capabilities of a new system. The developers from the project team have been invited in the room to observe the users, take notes, and answer the basic questions. Which of the following agile techniques and tools has been described in this scenario?

A. Usability testing

B. Automated testing

C. Scripted testing

D. Exploratory testing

Answer: Choice A is the correct answer.

Explanation: Usability testing is a type of testing that involves end users to check their response to the system under realistic circumstances. The main goal of this testing is to identify how easy it is for the end users to use the system and to expose the usability issues or defects that may need changes or redesign. The concerned people, developer in this scenario, observe the end users when they interact with the system, takes notes and answer their questions. To properly analyze the ease of usability of the system, data can be collected using a number of various approaches like videotaping the users, direct observation, eye-tracking tools and conducting post-testing interviews, etc.

Option A is correct. Usability testing is a type of testing that involves end users to check their response to the system under realistic circumstances. As in the given scenario, end users are invited to test the capabilities of a new system and developers observe the users while they interact with the system, take notes, and answer the basic questions, scenario describes the usability testing.

Option B is incorrect. Automated testing is closely associated with continuous integration and includes testing the software code automatically whenever it is checked in or at the regular intervals to make sure that the changed or added code has not created any defect and compiles correctly.

Option C is incorrect. In Scripted testing, there is a dedicated tester that executes all the functionalities of the system against the planned criteria.  End users are especially not involved in this testing.

Option D is incorrect. Like scripted testing, exploratory testing also includes a dedicated tester but with a very different goal. The goal of exploratory testing is to expose unexpected behavior and issues in the system.

References: PMI-ACP Exam Prep, Premier Edition: A Course in a Book for Passing the PMI Agile Certified Practitioner (PMI-ACP) Exam, Mike Griffiths, 2012, Usability Testing; Usability Testing, Agile Alliance, 2018, Available on:  https://www.agilealliance.org/glossary/usability

Hence option A is correct whereas options B, C, and D are incorrect.

Also Read: Top 5 Agile Certifications

6. You are an agile practitioner working on the critical medical application development project. In your company, the crystal family of methods is used for such complex projects that involve multiple teams. Which of the following methodology would you recommend as an agile practitioner using the crystal grid?

A. A darker color and softer crystal methodology from the upper right corner

B. A darker color and harder crystal methodology from the upper right corner

C. A clearer color and harder crystal methodology from the upper left corner

D. A clearer color and softer crystal methodology from the upper left corner

Answer: Choice B is the correct answer.

Explanation: Crystal is a family of methods that is used in agile methodologies for the implementation concerns. Crystal method is used for the different types of projects that involve various team sizes. It determines the unique characteristics of the projects based on several factors such as system criticality, team size, and project priority.

Crystal family of methods is represented by the grid in which team size is shown in the horizontal axis and project critically on the vertical axis. Project criticality represents how critical will be the impact of a defect in the system. Moving to the right of the grid means coordination with more people that requires heavier methodology i.e. choosing a darker color. While the upper movement in the grid represents the more damage from the damage in the system i.e. increased hardness.

In the given scenario, the project is to develop a critical medical application in which multiple teams are working. When the team size is large, a darker color methodology is used. When the project is more critical i.e. project criticality is higher, a harder crystal methodology is used. So, a darker color and harder crystal methodology from the upper right corner should be selected for the given scenario.

Option A is incorrect. The question mentions the development of a critical medical application. For which, the harder crystal methodology is required to be chosen, softer crystal methodology will not work.

Option B is correct. The project involves multiple teams i.e. team size is large, so darker color methodology will be used. Due to the higher criticality of the project, harder crystal methodology will be used. Also, higher criticality corresponds to the upper and right movement to the grid.

Option C is incorrect. Clearer color represents a smaller team size. In the given scenario where the multiple teams are working on the project, the team size is large. So, the darker color will be used to represent the team size.

Option D is incorrect. Clearer color represents a smaller team size. In the given scenario the team size is large, so the darker color will be used to represent the team size. Also, due to high criticality, the harder methodology will be used, not the softer one.

References: Agile Practice Guide, PMI Inc., 2017, Page(s) 106-107; Agile Software Development: The Cooperative Game, 2nd Edition by Alistair Cockburn, Chapter 6

Hence option B is correct whereas options A, C, and D are incorrect.

7. Ryan is a scrum master handling the team that is working on an agile project. The team members complaints that their work is being delayed as the new sponsor (who doesn’t know about the agile methodology and practices) keeps on asking them about the project details every time. What would you do in this situation as a scrum master?

A. Discuss with the product owner and request him to help in dealing with the new sponsor

B. Contact the sponsor and request him to bring all the questions to you (scrum master) only

C. Discuss with the team and fix one member as the spokesperson for the sponsor

D. Tell the team to take his (scrum master) permission before having any discussion with the sponsor

Answer: Choice B is the correct answer.

Explanation: There are a lot of duties of scrum master like promoting conversation and collaboration within teams.  To keep the team shielded from any type of interruption is also one of the major duties of scrum master. As in the current scenario, the new sponsor is disturbing the team by asking the project details frequently that is an interruption and slows down the progress of the project. It further makes it difficult for the team to accomplish the decided project goals. Therefore, it is the duty of scrum master to contact with the new sponsor and discuss with him the actual working of agile methodology. The scrum master should make a request to new sponsor to contact him in case of any question or query, not the team members.  

Option A is incorrect.  The product owner is the ultimate key stakeholder who is responsible for delivering the final product to the client. Product owner always wants the uninterrupted growth of the project but taking the assistant from the product owner, in this case, is not the best option. As all have their specific roles and responsibilities and it is the duty of scrum master to shield his team from any interruption.

Option B is correct. To contact with the sponsor is the best option for the scrum master. The scrum master should contact the sponsor to make him understand the agile working and the proper channel of forwarding the questions or queries regarding the project.

Option C is incorrect. It is the scrums master, not any team member who is responsible for keeping the team away from any interruption. The scrum master should handle the situation himself to make it easy for the team to accomplish the project goals with mutual collaboration.

Option D is incorrect.  It is not the way how agile works. It is a scrum master who should shield his team from this type of interruption. Also, the involvement of the team in these type of activities will waste their time in just waiting and responding that will divert them away from their actual project goals.

References: Agile Practice Guide, PMI Inc. 2017, Page 36; Glossary: Scrum Master, Agile Alliance 2019, Available on: https://www.agilealliance.org/glossary/scrum-master/

Hence option B is correct whereas options A, C, and D are incorrect.

8. Daily stand up meeting is very important for an agile team as it allows the team to communicate, collaborate, and make future work plans. Many new agile team members may need to understand the meaning of daily stand up meetings. Which is the following is the most important thing that an agile practitioner should keep in mind for an effective daily stand up meeting?

A. Every team member should take part in the daily stand up meeting; it will help to keep the meeting short

B. Daily stand up meeting helps to make sure that none of the team members have any doubt about the deliverables and the performance of the team is intact

C. Daily stand up meeting is a short meeting only for 15 minutes; no one can leave the meeting until the discussion is over

D. Daily stand up meeting should be well-structured and short

Answer: Choice D is the correct answer.

Explanation: The daily meeting is used in the different agile methodologies. In the Scrum, it is known as a daily meeting and timeboxed to 15 minutes while in eXtreme Programming (XP), it is known as a daily stand up meeting and timeboxed to 5 minutes. Generally, the daily meeting is a short meeting held daily at the same time, to keep everyone up-to-date about the vital information regarding the project. Team members discuss three questions during the daily meeting. The daily stand up meeting should be well-structured to get the answer to these questions but short.

  • What did you do since last daily standup meeting?
  • What are you planning to do today?
  • What are the risks/problems you are facing?

Option A is incorrect. It is recommended that every team member should take part in the daily stand up meeting, but it’s not related to the duration of daily stand up meeting short. Also, it’s not the most important be kept in mind for the effective daily stand up meeting.

Option B is incorrect. Daily stand up meeting involves the discussion on three questions. One question is about the impediments i.e. risks and issues that any team member have. It helps to deal with risks and ensures that team performance is intact. But it doesn’t make the daily stand up meeting effective.

Option C is incorrect. The duration of daily stand up meeting varies in different agile methodologies. As in the question, the term used is daily stand up, it signifies that the XP methodology is being used. In XP, the daily stand up meeting should have the duration a maximum of 5 minutes. Rather, we can’t be ensured about the duration as the methodology has not been specified.

Option D is correct. The daily standup meeting should be short, it is true. Also, it should be well-structured, such that the team members should be focused on answering the three questions. So, it’s the most important point that specifies the effective daily stand up meeting.

References: Agile Practice Guide, PMI Inc. 2017, Page(s) 53-54; Glossary: Daily Meeting, Agile Alliance 2019, Available on: https://www.agilealliance.org/glossary/daily-meeting/

Hence option D is correct whereas options A, B, and C are incorrect.

9. Harold is a stakeholder in company A. He has recently learned that the team will use an agile framework in the current project. In a planning meeting, Harold tells the team members that they are not doing formal documentation in this project as they were doing in the previous projects. How will the team members react to his statement?

A. There is no documentation in the agile projects, they focus on the value-added delivery

B. The documentation is kept barely sufficient to fulfill regulatory requirements in agile methodology

C. In agile, the documentation is done for the clear work items only

D. Documentation is not created in agile methodology, but we used as much documentation possible to make you comfortable with the agile

Answer: Choice B is the correct answer.

Explanation: Agile Manifesto value #2 states “Working software over comprehensive documentation”. In agile, creating the formal documentation with a detailed description of everything is considered wastage of time. It does not mean that documentation is not necessary at all. It is necessary but it should be kept barely sufficient to fulfill regulatory requirements in an agile environment.  Although for some safety-critical products, some additional documentation and conformance checks are recommended.

Option A is incorrect.  In agile, working software with sufficient documentation is preferred. Value-based delivery is one of the major aspects of agile methodology but it should be supported with sufficient documentation to meet the regulatory needs.

Option B is correct. In agile, documentation is kept small and barely sufficient to fulfill regulatory requirements in an agile environment.  Only the required time and effort should be applied to create documentation, neither less nor more.

Option C is incorrect. In agile, documentation is not related to clear or unclear work items. It is intended towards meeting the regulatory needs of the team, organization, and customer.

Option D is incorrect. Documentation has a significant place even in agile methodology. It is not true that the documentation is not created in agile. In Agile, small documentation is created to fulfill the regulatory requirements.

References:  Agile Practice Guide, PMI Inc. 2017, Page 122; The Agile Manifesto, Scrum Alliance 2018,  Available on: https://www.scrumalliance.org/forbes/transformation/agile-manifesto

Hence option B is correct whereas options A, C, and D are incorrect.

10. Gerard is a scrum master handling a scrum team working on the customer production system development.  The members of the team are distributed across the globe. During the iteration, the team found a critical defect so they decided to discuss the troubleshooting steps on the video conference. But suddenly the team members started blaming each other for the defect and the discussion turned into an argument. How would Gerrard handle this situation as a scrum master?

A. Request the team members to gather on site to resolve this type of critical defects

B. Ask the team to discuss and resolve the issue collaboratively in a professional manner

C. Tell the team to take a break and start the discussion after some time

D. Wait for the retrospective meeting and review the result of team discussion with the team

Answer: Choice B is the correct answer.

Explanation: Scrum master acts as a facilitator for his team. It is his responsibility to promote the conversation and collaboration within the team and among teams. He is supposed to extract best out of each member with his managing and collaborating skills. In case of conflicts or bottleneck, it is the duty of scrum master to encourage collaboration among team members. In the current scenario, scrum master should ask his team members to discuss the point of views of each in a collaborative and professional way. He should help team members in understanding that internal conflicts are not good for any team. Views of others should be considered as the other options and the team should try to resolve the issues in a professional way. It’s the collaboration that will help in resolving the conflicts and getting the desired results.

Option A is incorrect. Requesting the team members to gather on the site to resolve this type of critical defects is not the best option in this case. Gathering on site will just waste the time that otherwise can be put in development.

Option B is correct. It is the duty of scrum master to promote the collaboration within the team. Asking the team to discuss and resolve the issue collaboratively in a professional manner is the best option in this case.

Option C is incorrect.  Agile teams are self-organizing teams but in this case, as the discussion has turned into a heated argument, it is important for the scrum master to involve in the matter and facilitate the team for mutual collaboration and professional discussion.

Option D is incorrect. In simple situations, wait for the retrospective meeting and review the result of team discussion with the team seems a good option. But in the current scenario,  a critical defect is found in the production system, therefore, the situation demands an urgent resolution.

References: Agile practice guide, PMI Inc. 2017, Page 35;  Scrum Roles Demystified, Scrum Alliance 2018, Available on: https://www.scrumalliance.org/agile-resources/scrum-roles-demystified

Hence option B is correct whereas options A, C, and D are incorrect.

The agile project management model is preferred by the teams due to its flexibility. Let’s find out what makes agile so flexible.

11. The agile team uses a data gathering facilitation technique to gather data in an iteration retrospective. The team creates a graph to provide a visual picture of the status of their satisfaction in any particular area. Choose the correct name for this technique.

A. Team Radar

B. Satisfaction Histogram

C. Color Code Dots

D. Triple Nickles

Answer: Choice B is the correct answer.

Explanation: Satisfaction Histogram is a data gathering technique that is used to know the satisfaction level of individuals in a particular area, process or activity. In this technique, a graph is created to provide a visual picture of the status of their satisfaction that helps the team in having deeper discussions and analysis. It is frequently used during the iteration retrospective.

Option A is incorrect. Team Radar is also a data gathering technique but it is generally used to evaluate the team’s performance in culture, value and development practices.  Therefore, this is an incorrect option.

Option B is correct. Satisfaction histogram is a technique in which the team creates a graph to provide a visual picture of the status of their satisfaction in any particular area. Therefore, it is the correct option.

Option C is incorrect. Color Code Dots is a technique used for gathering data related to feelings; where the emotions ran high or low in an iteration retrospective, project retrospective or release. But in the given scenario, the motive is to analyze the satisfaction level of team members in any particular area, therefore this is an incorrect option.

Option D is incorrect. Triple Nickels is a brainstorming approach that is used for generating ideas for actions or recommendations. Therefore, it is not the correct option.

References: Esther Derby, D. L. (2006). Agile Retrospectives: Making Good Teams Great. Paperback, 2006.

Hence option B is correct whereas options A, C, and D are incorrect.

12. You are an agile practitioner and have recently been assigned to handle an ongoing Agile project. During the sprint retrospective, the project manager asked all the team members to put sticky dots on the project timeline to display the events where the emotions ran high or low. Choose the option that represents this activity.

A. Pareto Charts

B. Affinity Diagrams

C. Color Code Dots

D. Triple Nickles

Answer: Choice C is the correct answer.

Explanation: Color Code Dots is a data gathering technique which is used in conjunction with a timeline to show how events are experienced by the individuals in a longer iteration or retrospective. It focuses on collecting the data for feelings; where emotions ran high or low. A timeline is drawn on the board and sticky notes are put on it. All members have  5-10 high energy and low energy sticky dots which they have to paste on sticky notes.

Option A is incorrect. Pareto Chart is used to analyze the frequency of causes or problems in an activity or process. Therefore, it is an incorrect option.

Option B is incorrect. An affinity diagram is a business tool used to organize ideas, opinions, data, and issues. Therefore, it is also an incorrect choice.

Option C is correct. Color Code Dots is a technique where sticky dots are used by team members to show the items or events where emotions ran high or low.   Items with more dots have higher priority than items with fewer dots. The technique is frequently used during the sprint retrospective activity.

Option D is incorrect.  Triple Nickels is a brainstorming approach that is used for generating ideas for actions or recommendations. Therefore, it is not the correct option.

References: Esther Derby, D. L. (2006). Agile Retrospectives: Making Good Teams Great. Paperback, 2006.

Hence option C is correct whereas options A, B, and D are incorrect.

13. During a retrospective, an agile team defines the desired state required to achieve. Small groups work for the identification of the factors that could drive the changes they want. They note down the factors and then the group checks the strength of each supporting factor with respect to other factors. Then the team repeats this process for inhibiting factors. Name the technique the team is using.

A. Brainstorming

B. Fishbone Analysis

C. Working Agreements

D. Force Field Analysis

Answer: Choice D is the correct answer.

Explanation: The team is using force field analysis technique. Force Field Analysis is an amazing tool that helps in making the transformational changes by evaluating the contributing factors. In this technique, all the supporting and inhibiting factors for the change are assessed and the feasibility of the change is analyzed in the current environment.

Option A is incorrect.   Brainstorming is generally a group meeting under the supervision of a facilitator where participants are asked to generate and share their ideas on a particular topic or problem. But in the given scenario, team members are involved in assessing and evaluating all the supporting and inhibiting factors to check the feasibility of change, therefore it is not the correct option.

Option B is incorrect. Fishbone analysis is a diagramming tool that categorizes the possible causes of the intended problem with the intention of identification of the root cause.

Option C is incorrect. Working Agreement is an important tool that is used to establish a mutual understanding, the working style, and approach for the team.

Option D is correct. The team is using force field analysis technique. In this technique, all the factors involved in the change are identified and the strength of all supporting and inhibiting factors is evaluated to check the feasibility of the change.

References: Creative Problem-Solving in Agile, Robert Weidner (2015), Available on: https://www.scrumalliance.org/community/articles/2015/september/creative-problem-solving-in-agile

Hence option D is correct whereas options A, B, and C are incorrect

14. An agile team is working on a software development project. During a retrospective, the team reveals its concerns regarding quality management processes. About 1% of the produced deliverables had some minor defects so, rework is required. What should the team do to bring the future performance of the project to meet the expected quality standards?

A. Find the root cause with critical chain diagram

B. Investigate the root cause using the fishbone diagram

C. Investigate the root cause with tornado diagram

D. Don’t do anything, ignore the minor defects

Answer: Choice B is the correct answer.

Explanation: The team has observed some minor defects in the produced deliverables. To enhance the quality of deliverables and meet the quality standards, it is necessary to find out the root cause of the problem. Therefore, in the given scenario, root cause analysis will work. Fishbone diagram is a diagrammatic tool used for root cause analysis. In this technique, possible causes of the problem or defect are further divided into different branches to identify the root cause.

Option A is incorrect. Critical chain diagram is a project management tool that helps in scheduling the project. It will not help in finding the root cause of the defect.

Option B is correct. Fishbone diagram is a diagrammatic tool which is used to find the root cause of the problem. In this diagram, different causes of a problem are further divided into different branches to reach to the root cause.

Option C is incorrect. Tornado diagram is a diagrammatic tool that is used to demonstrate the possible change in result with the changes in considered variables. Therefore, it won’t help in finding the root cause of the defect.

Option D is incorrect.  No defects should be ignored even if they are minor. Minor defects are also capable to affect the quality of the product adversely.

References: A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, PMBOK® Guide Sixth Edition, Page 293.

Hence option B is correct whereas options A, C, and D are incorrect.

15. You are an agile coach leading a complex knowledge work project in an organization. To document and share the knowledge work created by the project, you have to select a tool. There are a number of options, and as the agile coach, you considered two options that seem equally good. What will you do next to select the final right tool?

A. Organize a planning poker event and study both the options to choose the best one

B. Use a fishbone diagram to find the best tool out of the two options

C. Organize a spike event and study both the options to choose the best one

D. Schedule a meeting with the product owner to make the final decision

Answer: Choice C is the correct answer.

Explanation: Spikes are helpful for learning purposes and are generally used in circumstances like acceptance criteria definition, estimation, and understanding the flow and applicability of ideas or actions. The agile coach should organize a spike event and study both the options to choose the best one.

Option A is incorrect. Planning Poker is consensus-based planning and estimating technique in agile.  It is used by the agile teams for the estimation of their product backlogs.

Option B is incorrect. Fishbone analysis is a diagramming tool that categorizes the possible causes of the intended problem with the intention of identification of the root cause.

Option C is correct. The agile coach should organize a spike event and study both the options to choose the best one.

Option D is incorrect. To schedule a meeting with the product owner to make the final decision is not the best option. Agile teams are self-organized and involving product owner in these matters is not recommended.

References: Agile Practice Guide, PMI Inc. 2017, Page 56; Spikes in Scrum: The Exception, Not the Rule, Scrum Alliance 2016, Available on: https://www.scrumalliance.org/learn-about-scrum/agile-atlas/agile-atlas-commentaries/may-2014/spikes-in-scrum-the-exception,-not-the-rule

Hence option C is correct whereas options A, B, and D are incorrect.

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16. John is a scrum master/coach for an agile team. During a design discussion meeting, he was acting as the facilitator. He noticed that the team has made the wrong design choice. John tried to correct them by dropping some hints in the form of questions but these got un-noticed. This incorrect design choice might cause some extra work for the team. What John should do next?

A. John should continue dropping hints until team understands what he is trying to highlight

B. John should tell the team to change the design option. John can also explain the reasoning if required

C. John should share his view about design option but leave the final decision on the team

D. Do nothing. Let the team learn from mistakes

Answer: Choice D is the correct answer.

Explanation: Here the team has already made a decision. John also tried to correct them by providing enough hints in the form of questions and these got un-noticed. Whatever mentioned by choice C is already done by John and the next thing is to do nothing and make sure the team learned from their mistakes.

Choice A is not correct since the team has already made a decision.

Choice B is not correct since John is a scrum master he needs to focus on facilitating exercise and should not direct the team.

Choice C is not correct since he has already shared his views and insisting on them, again and again, is not his role.

Choice D is correct since as a scrum master he does nothing. The team can learn from their mistakes if any and come back fast.

Reference: Coaching Agile Teams by Lyssa Adks inins, chapter 3.

17. In iteration planning, the team committed for 3 stories. The story point estimate for these stories were – 5 points, 4 points, and zero points. The team was able to successfully deliver all of these stories. The story worth 5 points took 5 ideal days. The story worth 4 points took 3 ideal days. The story worth zero points took very little effort (hardly 1-2 hours). What should be the velocity based on this data?

A. 3 stories.

B. 8 story points.

C. A number between 8 and 9 story points.

D. 9 story points.

Answer: Choice D is the correct answer.

Explanation: Choice A is not correct since estimation has been done in story points so velocity should be Calculated in story points only.

Choice B is not correct, as estimation was done in story points, so it makes sense to express the velocity in the same unit. If a story worth X points take Y ideal days, another story of worth 2X points need not take exactly 2Y points. Slight variations in the estimate are alright. We need not to bother about such minor variations as velocity itself is a great equalizer for estimation errors.

Choice C is incorrect for the same reason as mentioned above. Moreover, zero story point estimate is for stories having trivial effort so these have no contribution in velocity calculation. If there are multiple zero points stories in the same iteration, it is better to club these so that they may have a finite estimate in story points.

Choice D is correct, and total story points worth work delivered = 5 + 4 + 0 = 9 story points.

Reference: Agile estimating and planning by Mike Cohn.

18. An agile team is planning for its 9th iteration. So far, the velocity has been: Lowest= 12 story points; Average=18 story points; Highest=24. Following are the user stories in backlog in descending order of priority?

  1. Story 1-5 points
  2. Story 2-7 points
  3. Story 3-9 points
  4. Story 4-5 points
  5. Story 5-3 points
  6. Story 6-1 points

Which of the following stories should be chosen?

A. 1,2

B. 1,2,3

C. 1,2,4,6

D. 1,2,4,5

Answer: Choice C is the correct answer.

Explanation: Generally, it is best to use average velocity for planning. Large velocity variations are possible due to a number of reasons. For e.g. in an iteration team picked 8 points worth story but could not finish it due to the last minute bud found. This didn’t any anything in velocity calculation for that iteration. However, in next iteration, will small amount of effort team have got 8 points added in velocity. There could be a good amount of variation in velocity calculated for both iterations so taking average velocity for planning is a balanced approach.    

To select stories, the team will go through the backlog in priority order from the top, towards the bottom.  Now assuming 18 story points velocity, the team could easily pick stories 1 and 2. The team can’t pick story 3 as that would mean committing for 21 story points. After skipping 3, the team could pick 4 so now their total commitments are 17 story points. Going further down, the team can’t pick story 5 but can pick story 6.     

Choice A is not correct since the number of story points is equal to 12 story points only.

Choice B is not correct since the number of story points is greater than 18 (Average velocity).

Choice C is correct since the number of story points is equal to the average velocity.

Choice D is not correct since the number of story points is greater than 18 (Average velocity).

Reference: Agile estimating and planning by Mike Cohn.

19. You are leading a large agile project for a health insurance company. You have decided to outsource one of the major functional modules. You received three bids. Seller A has the most experience of working on agile projects. Seller B has the most experience of delivering health insurance projects. Seller C has the lowest bid. Which seller you would choose?

A. Seller A: Understanding of agile methodology is most important. Agile incremental &iterative delivery can cover for limited functional experience and will ultimately save the cost.

B. Seller B: In agile, functional expertise is most important. If the contract is fixed price, it doesn’t matter whether the vendor uses agile iterative delivery or waterfall.

C. Seller C: Lowest bid, wins the contract.

D. Any seller can win the contract depending on the weighing system. The weighing system considers all important factors.

Answer: Choice D is the correct answer.

Explanation: The PMBOK 5th Edition guide recommends creating a weighting system for sellers; that is, rating sellers along with a set of weighted criteria so that the most appealing rise to the top. The weights then create a “negotiating sequence” that determines the selection order of sellers.

Choice A is not correct since the given statement is not correct with respect to the sellers’ selection.

Choice B is not correct since the given statement is not correct with respect to the sellers’ selection.

Choice C is not correct since the given statement is not correct with respect to the sellers’ selection.

Choice D is correct, and any seller can win the contract depending on the weighing system. The weighing system considers all important factors.

Reference: The Software Project Manager’s bridge to agility by Michele Slinger & Stacia Broderick, Chapter 12.

20. What agile team should do to mitigate the risks associated with intrinsic schedule flaw?

A. Add Local safety in the estimate.

B. Add extra resources increases team productivity.

C. Re-evaluate the release plan at the end of each iteration.

D. Re-evaluate the release plan at the end of the release.

Answer: Choice C is the correct answer.

Explanation: Choice A is not correct, as first of all there should not be any local safety added in estimates. Any slack to handle schedule risk should be added at release level (like adding extra iteration). Secondly, slack is useful for general schedule risk but will not work for intrinsic schedule flaw.

Choice B is not correct, as adding extra resources will not help in meeting intrinsic schedule flaw. Beyond an optimum team, size having extra resources doesn’t help in productivity gain. Moreover, intrinsic schedule flaw doesn’t always mean project taking long. It may be opposite case.

Choice C is correct since the agile team should re-evaluate the release plan after the end of each iteration to mitigate risks associated with intrinsic schedule flaw.

Choice D is not correct, as re-evaluating at the end of release will not allow the teams to mitigate.

Reference: The Software Project Manager’s bridge to agility by Michele Slinger & Stacia Broderick.

Also Read: Top 25 Agile Interview Questions

21. An agile team is tracking the progress using release burn-down chart. While the chart was moving down till 5th iteration then it went up slightly and then again moved down till it touched the horizontal line. What could have been the reason for burn-down chart going down?

A. In the testing of 6th iteration, there were bugs found in stories that were accepted as “done” in 5th iteration.

B. It was simply a plotting error. The team requires training on agile tracking tool.

C. There was more work added that team finished in the sixth iteration.

D. The team could not finish any story in the sixth iteration.

Answer: Choice C is the correct answer.

Explanation: Choice A is not correct, because if there are bugs found later in the accepted work, these should be treated as new stories but it is a priority call taken by product owner whether to add these in current iteration or later.

Choice B is not correct, as the burn-down chart is a very simple chart so it is highly unlikely to have such plotting errors.

Choice C is correct, there must have been more work added than team finished in 6th iteration so work finished was negative. This is a known limitation of the burn-down chart that it doesn’t show the work added separately.

Choice D is not correct, because if work wasn’t finished then 6th iteration should have horizontal line rather than chart moving upwards, it moved upwards because of additional work.

Reference: Agile estimating and planning by Mike Cohn, Chapter 19.

22. An agile team working on new software for a bookstore. In 1st iteration top priority story in book maintenance (adding books, modifying information about books, deletion of books)

During the iteration planning, the team realized that this story is quite big and may not be delivered completely in a single iteration.

What should the team do?

A. divide into smaller stories based on the layers on an architecture such as the creation of screens,  user interface layer, back-end, middle tier connecting back-end and user interface.

B. Divide it into smaller stories based on functions such as one story for adding books, another for modifying information about books, and the 3rd one for deletion of books.

C. Do nothing as it’s normal to have the initial few iterations delivering no business value. The team can continue working on remaining tasks in 2nd iteration.

D. Modifying the iteration length so that the team is able to finish this story in one single iteration.

Answer: Choice B is the correct answer.

Explanation: Choice A is not correct, because dividing the story based on architecture is not recommended. It this case, smaller stories would not be valuable for business. Moreover, the team would not be able to deliver any business value until all the tasks are complete.

Choice B is correct, as it is advisable to split the stories based on operational boundaries.

Choice C is not correct, it is true that often agile team don’t deliver any real business value in initial iterations as entire effort goes into foundation laying activities. However, this doesn’t mean that the team should not make an attempt to deliver business value when this is entirely possible.

Choice D is not correct, as iteration length is decided during release planning i.e. before iteration planning. Moreover, it is not advisable to tweak the iteration length just because a particular story can’t be fit into an iteration. It is highly recommended to have all iterations of the same length.    

Reference: Agile estimating and planning by Mike Cohn, Chapter 12.

23. Which of the following is best to call a good user story?

A. The administrator can manage the books she has added.

B. The administrator can update the book availability text.

C. The administrator can add, edit and delete multiple books.

D. The code should be written in JAVA.

Answer: Choice B is the correct answer.

Explanation: Choice A is not correct since it is not a closed story because managing something is an ongoing activity and it does not tell what managing books involve.

Choice B is correct, and an administrator can update the book availability text. This can particularly useful if the book is out of stock so that users can get the correct information. It may also tell if the book was out of stock but now has become available.

Choice C is not correct, but it is a compound story, which should be split into multiple small stories.

Choice D is not correct, as it is a technical requirement or constraint, not a user story.

Reference: User Stories Applied: For Agile Software Development by Mike Cohn.

Also Read: Why Agile Career is a Good Option?

24. As an agile lead/manager, what should you do if you see a committed story can’t be finished by end of the iteration and it would take another 2 days?

A. As it is just a matter of two days, extend the iteration length this time to finish what was committed. Meeting commitment is more important than having a fixed iteration length.

B. Ask the team to stop working on the story as it can’t be finished. Schedule this as top priority story for next iteration.

C. Discuss with the product owner about the situation and available options without changing iteration end date. Determine if and when it should be completed.

D. Let the team continue working and finish as much as you can. Pick the unfinished part in next iteration

Answer: Choice C is the correct answer.       

Explanation: Choice A is not correct, as no matter what, iteration end date should not be changed. That is against agile principles.

Choice B is not correct, as an agile manager can’t just assume that this is the top priority item for the next iteration. The product priorities are best decided by the product owner.

Choice C is correct, as a product owner is best placed to decide about priorities. One of the opinions could be to divide the story into smaller stories (if feasible) or have an agreement about reduced scope. If the story has to be deferred to future iterations, it needs to be taken up in the iteration planning meeting of next iterations. There is a high probability that this would be picked in next iteration but we can’t just assume that.

Choice D is not correct, for the reason mentioned above. It might be wasteful to continue the work and half-done work at the end of the iteration. The decision whether to continue or stop needs to be taken care after discussion with the product owner and team.       

Reference: Agile Estimating and Planning by Mike Cohn, Chapter 19.

25. There is a new person joined the team. You see him doing copy paste from one module to other. What do you think is right here?

A. There is nothing wrong here as in a team, it’s okay to reuse team members work

B. This is the violation of intellectual property. People should use their knowledge and creativity rather than copying others work

C. Violation of design principle called ‘DRY’ (Don’t Repeat Yourself)

D. No need for this person to ask permission from the original author of the code

Answer: Choice C is the correct answer.

Explanation: Choice A is not correct, and it is not a valid practice in agile.

Choice B is not correct, because generally work produced by IT staff is the intellectual property of the organization and it is okay to reuse other’s work.

Choice C is correct, as this violation of design principle DRY. DRY concept recommends removing/avoiding duplicate code. Ideally, if we need to reuse some logic, the best thing is to make it a common routine, which can be called /referenced from multiple places. This issue with such copy paste is, the code becomes un-necessarily lengthy and clumsy. If there is a change in that logic, changes will have to be made at multiple places so this impacts the scalability.

Choice D is not correct since the given statement is not correct with respect to the given situation.

Reference: The Art of Agile Development by James Shore.

26. Which of the following are the TRUE statements about velocity?

1) If a story is not complete, based on % complete, it can contribute towards velocity calculation.

2)  Velocity corrects estimate errors.

3)  Velocity helps in customer satisfaction.

4)  Velocity helps in predicting end date of release.

A. 4 only.

B. 1 and 3.

C. 2,3 and 4.

D. All four.

Answer: Choice C is the correct answer.

Explanation: Statement 1 is not correct as we should only consider done-done stories towards velocity calculation.

Statement 2, 3 and 4 are correct with respect to the velocity.

Choice A is true as velocity helps in predicting the end date of release. However, statement 2 and 3 are also true with respect to the velocity of the team.

Choice B is not correct since statement 1 is not correct.

Choice C is correct since all the given statements 2, 3 and 4 are correct related to the velocity of the team.

Choice D is not correct since statement 1 is not correct.

Reference: Agile estimating and planning by Mike Cohn.

27. During iteration planning, the amount of slack that you build depends on the ______________of the problems that your team experiences in each iteration.

A. Complexity.

B. Number.

C. Randomness.

D. Impact

Answer: Choice C is the correct answer.

Explanation: Amount of slack really depends on the randomness of the problem.

For example, if roughly we face 20 hours of problems each release then that should have automatically come within velocity calculation. However, if we are facing 20 to 30 hours of the problem each iteration then you may consider having 10 hours of slack.

Choice A is not correct since complexity is not the factor we consider to build the amount of slack in iteration planning.

Choice B is not correct since Number is not the factor we consider to build the amount of slack in iteration planning.

Choice C is correct since Randomness is the factor we consider to build the amount of slack in iteration planning.

Choice D is not correct since Impact is not the factor we consider to build the amount of slack in iteration planning.

Reference: The Art of Agile Development by James Shore, Chapter 8.

28. An agile team needs to build a new website to sell few retail products through the internet. In which order you would perform various activities related to user role modeling.

A. Create a persona, Identify user roles, Refine roles, Consolidation and narrowing.

B. Identify customer, Brainstorm on initial roles, Organize roles, Consolidate roles, refine roles (add persona, consider an attribute).

C. Identify customer, create personas, Identify initial roles, Refine roles, consolidated roles.

D. Identify initial roles, refine roles (add persona, consider and attributes), Identify customer, consolidation and narrowing.

Answer: Choice B is the correct answer.

Explanation: Choice A is not correct, since create personas is given even before creating initial business roles.

Choice B is correct since the statement is given in the correct sequences.

Choice C is not correct, since create personas is given even before creating initial business roles.

Choice D is not correct, as first, we need to identify the customer who could help in role identification. Also, role refinement typically happens after consolidation and narrowing.

Reference: User Stories Applied: For Agile Software Development by Mike Cohn, Chapter 3.

29. Which of the following is correct about terms product knowledge and project knowledge?

A. Product knowledge is knowledge about what will be developed while project knowledge is about how the product will be created.

B. Project knowledge is knowledge about what will be developed while product knowledge is about how the product will be created.

C. Project knowledge is knowledge about what will be developed while product knowledge is about features to be developed.

D. Both project knowledge and product knowledge terms are used interchangeably in agile development and relate to knowledge about how the product should be developed.

Answer: Choice A is the correct answer.

Explanation: Product knowledge is knowledge about what will be developed. It is knowledge about the features that will be included and about those that will not be included. The more product knowledge a team has, the better able they will be to make a decision about the nature and features of the product.

Project knowledge, by contrast, is the knowledge about how the product will be created. Examples include knowledge about the technologies that will be used, about the skills of the developers, about how well the team functions together and so on.

Choice A is correct since the explanation for the product knowledge and project knowledge are correct.

Choice B is not correct since the explanation for the product knowledge and project knowledge are wrong.     

Choice C is not correct since the explanation for the product knowledge and project knowledge are wrong.

Choice D is not correct, and the terms project knowledge and product knowledge are not used interchangeably.

Reference: Agile Estimating and Planning by Mike Cohn, Chapter 9.

Also Read: Factors to Choose the Right Agile Development Method

30. Which of the following allows the team to make and meet long-term commitments?

A. Release planning.

B. Project Chartering.

C. Risk management.

D. Slack.

Answer: Choice C is the correct answer.

Explanation: Choice A is not correct since release planning helps us in making long terms commitments. However, there can be the number of uncertainties that a team needs to manage throughout the project. Release planning happens once so it can’t help much in meeting the long-term commitments.

Choice B is not correct since project charactering is for setting up initial direction, it typically happens before the team makes any commitments.

Choice C is correct since every project has a number of uncertainties. Despite these uncertainties, your stakeholders need schedule commitments that they can rely upon. Risk management allows us to make and meet these commitments.

Choice D is not correct since slack helps us in mitigating schedule risk. However, there are many other kinds of risk so the better answer is risk management.

Reference: The Art of Agile Development by James Shore, Chapter 8.

31. Following are few statements about story writing workshop. Which of the following statements are correct with respect to a story writing workshop?

1. During a story writing workshop, the focus should be on quality rather than quantity.

2. A Good story-writing workshop combines the best elements of brainstorming with low-fidelity prototyping.

3. No priorities are associated with stories during story writing workshop.

4. A story writing workshop includes developers, users, the product customer and other parties who can contribute by writing stories.

A. 1 and 4

B. 2 and 3

C. 2, 3 and 4

D. All four

Answer: Choice C is the correct answer.

Explanation: Statement 1 is incorrect as the aim of the story writing workshop is to produce as many stories as possible so key focus in on quantity (rather than quality)

Statement 2 is correct as low fidelity prototypes are used during story-writing. There is brainstorming to come up with stories.

Statement 3 is correct as, during a story writing workshop, the complete focus is on writing stories. No priorities are associated at this time.

Statement 4 is correct as story-writing workshop does include developers, users and all other people who can contribute.

Story Writing Workshop

Choice A is not correct, as statement 1 is incorrect about story writing workshop.

Choice B is not correct since all the three statements which are correct 2, 3 and 4 are not given as options. Only statement 2 and 3 are given here.

Choice C is correct since all the three statements which are correct 2, 3 and 4 are given as options.

Choice D is not correct since statement 1 is incorrect about story writing workshop.

Reference: User Stories Applied: For Agile Software Development by Mike Cohn.

32. What is the best time for a product owner to groom the backlog?

A. During release planning.

B. During iteration planning.

C. Exactly before iteration planning.

D. This can happen throughout the iteration or in a meeting a few days prior to iteration planning.

Answer: Choice D is the correct answer.

Explanation: Backlog grooming is a process of estimating the existing backlog using effort/points, refining the acceptance criteria for individual stories, and breaking large stories into smaller stories. It can either happen in a meeting or can happen throughout the sprint on a more continuous basis. One of the commonly used methods is planning poker.

Choice A is not correct, as backlog grooming is a process that happens throughout the release.

Choice B is not correct, as iteration planning is a short meeting so backlog grooming should better be avoided.

Choice C is not correct, as backlog grooming need not happen just before iteration planning. Typically, we do grooming on a continuous basis to ensure that backlog has sufficient information for the next 2-3 iterations.

Choice D is correct, as grooming of backlog can happen anytime during the iteration. The idea is to have sufficient information in place before iteration planning.

Reference: Coaching Agile Teams by Lyssa Adksins, Chapter 6.

33. When it is best to do Risk Audit (examine the effectiveness of risk responses)?

A. As part of iteration planning.

B. As part of iteration review.

C. As part of the retrospective meeting.

D. As part of risk management review meeting.

Answer: Choice C is the correct answer.

Explanation: Choice A is not correct, as iteration planning happens at the beginning of the iteration. Risk Audit should happen towards the end of iteration rather than the beginning (Risk Audit should be after doing some risk management)

Choice B is not correct, as a purpose of iteration review is to provide a demo to stakeholders so risk audit is not in line with the key purpose of the iteration review meeting.

Choice C is correct, as the purpose of the retrospective is to understand what went well and what did not go well. Examining the effectiveness of risk response plan (risk audit) should be best done as part of the retrospective meeting.

Choice D is not correct, as agile provides a mechanism for risk audit in the form of retrospectives so there is no need to have another separate meeting.

Reference: The Software Project Manager’s Bridge to Agility by Michele Sliger, Stacia Broderick, Chapter 11.

34. An agile team is following burn down bar chart to track the progress. Following is the sequence of events:

1. In the beginning, there were 240 story points worth work.

2. In iteration 1, the team finished 20 stories work.

3. In iteration planning meeting of the second iteration, a new story high priority story of 15 story points was added and same was selected as part of iteration scope.

4. The team did finish the newly selected story and another story of 5 points (total 20 points of worth work).

How should bar chart now look like for iteration progress?

A. Top of the bar is at 200 points, the bottom is at -15.

B. Top of the bar is at 215 points, the bottom is at zero.

C. Top of the bar is at 200 points, the bottom is at zero.

D. Top of the bar is at 215 points, the bottom is at -15.

Answer: Choice A is the correct answer.

Explanation: Top of the bar is lowered based on the amount of work finished. Total 40 points worth work finished so that means the top of the bar should be at 200 points. Bottom of the bar is lowered when additional work is added so the bottom was brought down to -15. It doesn’t matter when this additional work finishes, the bottom of the bar will be raised only when some scope is removed.

Choice A is correct, and the calculated value is equal to the given value.

Choice B is not correct, and the calculated value is not equal to the given value.

Choice C is not correct, and the calculated value is not equal to the given value.

Choice D is not correct, and the calculated value is not equal to the given value.

Reference: Agile Estimating and Planning by Mike Cohn, Chapter 19.

35. Mark is working on a product development project using Agile methodologies. There are many features in the product which are available to the end user. Which one of the below is not a Minimum Viable Product (MVP)?

A. An explainer video which explains your product in a few seconds.

B. A nicely designed landing page which communicates the value of offerings in the product.

C. A single most valuable feature ready for use online for free to judge investor interest.

D. A product display of fifty features working nicely and developed/tested for six months thoroughly.

Answer: Choice D is the correct answer.

Explanation: Minimum Viable product is that version of a new product while allows a team to collect the maximum amount of validated learning about customers with the least effort.

Choice A is not correct since the explainer video which explains your product in a few seconds is an example of MVP.

Choice B is not correct since a nicely designed landing page which communicates the value of offering in the product is an example of MVP.

Choice C is not correct since a single most valuable feature ready for use online free to judge investor interest is an example of MVP.

Choice D is correct since a product display of fifty features working nicely and developed /tested for a six month thoroughly is not an example of MVP.

Hence choice D is correct, whereas choices A, B, and C are incorrect.

36. Daily stand-up is an important practice used in agile methodologies in different variants. Which of the below statement describes the difference between daily stand-up between Kanban &scrum methodologies. Assuming a big project with multiple teams.

A. In both Kanban & Scrum senior-level meeting happens first.

B. In both Kanban & Scrum team level meeting happens first.

C. In Kanban, higher level (in authority) meeting happens first whereas in Scrum the team’s first meet and then send a delegate to a Scrum-of-Scrums.

D. In Scrum, higher level (in authority) meeting happens first whereas in Kanban the team’s will meet first.

Answer: Choice C is the correct answer.

Explanation: In Kanban, all the features are taken at once and pulling of work items happens based on WIP. This is controlled first at senior level on daily basis and then further calls are taken. Whereas in Scrum, a set of features are taken and daily stand up happens within the individual team first and then they send representatives for the scrum of scrums.

Choice A is not correct since the given statement is not a valid statement.

Choice B is not correct since the given statement is not a valid statement.

Choice C is correct since, in Kanban, higher level (in authority) meeting happens first whereas in Scrum the team’s first meet and then send a delegate to a Scrum-of-Scrums is true.

Choice D is not correct since the given statement is not a valid statement.

Hence choice C is correct, whereas choices A, B and D are incorrect.

Going to handle an Agile project?? You need to get familiar with the term Agile Contracts. To help you out, here we bring an overview of Agile Contracts!

37. You are managing a large project. As you don’t have internal capacity, you decided to outsource a major part of your project. You have prepared and sent the RFP to key suppliers. You get a call from your cousin who is an account manager in one of the supplier firm. He wants to bid on your project. You know his company has done good work in the past so may be a good fit. How do you proceed?

A. You disclose the conflict of interest to your company and disqualify your cousin’s company

B. You disclose the conflict of interest to your company and provide your cousin with information that can improve his chances of winning the contract

C. You do not disclose the conflict of interest and give your cousin the bid

D. You disclose the conflict of interest to your company and make the selection based on objective criteria

Answer: Choice D is the correct answer.

Explanation: Any time there’s a conflict of interest, it is your duty to disclose it to your company. After that, you should always proceed based on your company’s policies. If there are no specific policies about that, then make sure that the conflict does not affect your decisions. When bidders are competing for a contract, you must make sure they all have some level of information so that no one bidder is given an unfair advantage.

Choice A is not correct since the given statement is against the PMI’s code of professional ethics.

Choice B is not correct since the given statement is against the PMI’s code of professional ethics.

Choice C is not correct since the given statement is against the PMI’s code of professional ethics.

Choice D is correct since the given statement is correct with respect to the PMI’s code of professional ethics.

Reference: PMI’s Code of professional ethics.

38. John is a scrum master/coach for an agile team. Tom came to him with a complaint about Jack. John as a good coach tried three-step intervention method but Tom rejected all three options. What John should be Next?

A. Do nothing. Cease to consider it a problem.

B. Set-up a meeting with both Tom and Jack to sort out differences.

C. Talk to Jack and make him aware of the complaint but without telling him the name of the complainer.

D. Warn Tom that complaining about colleagues is not acceptable in agile teams so there should not be repetition.

Answer: Choice A is the correct answer.

Explanation: Choice A is correct, do nothing and cease to consider it a problem. If complainer is not willing to accept options given in three-step intervention, that might mean complainer doesn’t want to resolve the complaint. Sometimes, people just want to vent. Other times, people try to add coach into their gossip chain. If the conflict looks too serious to ignore, then the coach should ask “Are you ready to solve this without blaming?” This is not given a choice and hence the best choice is A.

Choice B is not correct since this is against agile concept and coach should make sure that team members are resolving the conflicts themselves.

Choice C is not correct since this is against agile concept and coach should make sure that team members are resolving the conflicts themselves.

Choice D is not correct unless the complainer is a chronic complainer, the coach should listen to all complains. Even for the chronic complainer, it is important to make the complainer realize about the destructive influence that harboring resentments has on the team and on him as an individual.

Reference: Coaching Agile Teams by Lyssa Adksins, Chapter 9.

39. Which of the following is a one-page summary of key business and quality objectives, product capabilities and project management information?

A. Vision.

B. Project Datasheet.

C. Business case.

D. Requirement specification.

Answer: Choice B is the correct answer.

Explanation: Choice A is not correct since a vision statement tells what is to be achieved. It may not provide a full picture of why a project should be undertaken.

Choice B is correct since a project data sheet (PDS) is a single page summary of key business and quality objectives, product capabilities and project management information.

Choice C is not correct since a business case is a more detailed document, which provides a high-level view of why an initiative should be undertaken from the business point of view and related market research data.

Choice D is not correct since in agile there are no requirement specifications. Moreover, requirements specifications are rarely a one-page document.

Reference: Agile Project Management: Creating Innovative Products – 2nd Edition by Jim Highsmith, Chapter 6.

40. Which of the following is incorrect about acceptance tests?

A. Acceptance tests should be written as late as possible, generally just before the start of testing as that avoids rework

B. Acceptance tests are helpful in communicating assumptions of the customer team

C. Acceptance tests are tests that validate that the functionality to be delivered meets customer expectation

D. Acceptance tests are often written on the back of story card

Answer: Choice A is the correct answer.

Explanation: Choice A is correct and the given statement about acceptance test is false.

Choice B is not correct since the given statement “acceptance tests are helpful in communicating assumptions of customer team’ is true.

Choice C is not correct since the given statement “Acceptance tests are tests that validate that the functionality to be delivered meets customer expectation’ is true.

Choice D is not correct since the given statement “Acceptance tests are often written on the back of the story card’ is true.

Reference: User Stories Applied: For Agile Software Development by Mike Cohn, Chapter 6.

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About Dharmalingam N

Dharmalingam.N holds a master degree in Business Administration and writes on a wide range of topics ranging from technology to business analysis. He has a background in Relationship Management. Some of the topics he has written about and that have been published include; project management, business analysis and customer engagement.
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