Project Management Processes

Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements. This application of knowledge requires the effective management of the project management processes.

PMBOK5 Guide describe the nature of PM Processes in terms of

  • Integration between the processes
  • Their interactions
  • Purpose they serve

PM Process are grouped in five categories

  • Initiation Process group (Start): Define a new project by obtaining authorization to start the project.
  • Planning Process group (Plan): Establish the project scope, refine the objective and define the plan of action.
  • Executing Process group (Do): Complete the work defined to satisfy the project specifications.
  • Monitoring and controlling process group (Check & Act): Track, review and regulate the progress and performance of the project.
  • Closing process group (End): Finalize all activities performed all process groups and formally close the project.

These five process groups have clear dependencies and are typically perform in the same sequence on each project. They are independent of application areas or industry focus.


Figure – 1 shows how all the process groups are interacted with each other.

Initiating Process Group

Initiating process group consist of those processes performed to define a new project or a new phase of existing project by obtaining authorization to start the project or phase. This process group that contains the information to get project authorized officially started.

Main objectives of the initiation process group.

  • Assigning the project manager
  • Identify the project objectives
  • Identify stakeholders expectations
  • Define high level project scope
  • Make sure that project is aligned with business needs of the organization

Project Managers Activities in Initiation Process group

  • Conduct Cost-benefits analysis
  • Determine and define the business needs and project scope.
  • Know the project boundaries and constraints.
  • Identify high level risk.
  • Understand the required Project organization structure.
  • Estimate budget and resource requirement
  • Obtain the project charter approval
  • Preparation of Stakeholder register

As part of the initiating processes the project manager is given the authority to apply organizational resources to the subsequent project activities.

Develop Project Charter:

Develop project charter is the process of developing a document that formally authorizes the existence of a project. The key benefits of this process is a well-defined project start and project boundaries.


Tools & Techniques


  • Project Statement of work
  • Business Case&Agreements
  • Enterprise Environmental Factors
  • Organizational Process Assets
  • Expert Judgment
  • Facilitation Techniques
  • Project Charter
  • Project Statement of work
    • Business Needs
    • Product Scope Description
    • Strategic Plan
  • Business case
    • Market Demand
    • Organizational Needs
    • Customer Request
    • Technological Advance
    • Legal requirement
    • Ecological Impact and Social Needs
  • Enterprise environmental Factors
    • Governmental Standards, Industry Standards and regulations
    • Organizational Culture
    • Marketplace condition
  • Organizational process assets
    • Organizational process, policies & process definition
    • Templates and Lesson learned from past projects.
    • Project Purpose and Justification
    • Measurable Project Objectives
    • Project Success Criteria
    • High Level requirement
    • Assumption & Constraints
    • High level risk and Stakeholders List
    • Summary Milestone list

Project Charter Includes

  • Purpose or justification for the project
  • Business needs of the project
  • Business justification for the project, including return on investment analysis
  • High-level project description product description
  • Objectives and success criteria that must be completed satisfactorily according to stakeholders, sponsor, and customer expectations
  • Stakeholder influences
  • Involvement of other departments
  • Constraints and assumptions
  • Initial summary milestone schedule
  • Initial budget summary
  • Project managers name and their authority levels

The project charter should be signed off from the Project Manager, Project Sponsor and key stakeholders.This indicates that they agree and support the project. Note: Project charter may change during the life cycle of the project.

Identify Stakeholders:

The process of identifying the people, groups or organization that could impact or could be impacted by a decision, activity, or outcome of the project. And analyzing and documenting relevant information regarding their interests, involvement, interdependencies, influence and potential impact on projects.

It is very important to identify your stakeholders and their needs because if these stakeholders’ needs are not understood, then the project fails in some way.


Tools & Techniques


  • Procurement Documents
  • Enterprise Environmental Factors
  • Organizational Process Assets
  • Project Charter
  • Stakeholder Analysis
  • Expert Judgment
  • Meetings
  • Stakeholder Register

Stakeholder Analysis


We can analyze the Stakeholder based on graph. Classification models used for stakeholder analysis is

  • Power Interest Grid : Level of Power and Level of Concern
  • Power Influence Grid : Level of power and involvement
  • Influence Impact Grid : Active involvement & impact
  • Salience Model:  Power, Urgency and legitimacy.
  • Procurement documents
    • Bid, Tender or quotations
  • Enterprise environmental factors
    • Organizational culture and structure
    • Governmental or industry standards
    • Global, regional and local trends
  • Organizational process assets
    • Stakeholder Register templates
    • Stakeholder register from Previous projects
  • Stakeholder Register contains
    • Identification Information
    • Assessment information
    • Stakeholder classification

Questions & Answers

  1. You are the project manager for a large installation project when you realize there are 200 potential stakeholders. Which of the following would be the best course of action for you?
    • A. Eliminate some stakeholder
    • B. Contact your Manager and ask which stakeholder is most important.
    • C. Gather the needs of all the most influential stakeholders.
    • D. Find an effective way to gather the needs of all stakeholders.

    Correct Answer: D

  2. To Obtain Support for the Project throughout the performing organization, it’s BEST if the project Manager
    • A. Ensure there is a communication management plan
    • B. Correlates the need for the project to the organization’s strategic plan
    • C. Connects to the project to the personal objective of the sponsor.
    • D. Ensure that the management plan includes the management of team members.

    Correct Answer: A

  3. Which of the following is not an input to the Initiating Process group?
    • A. Company Process
    • B. Company Culture
    • C. Historical WBS
    • D. Project Scope Statement

    Correct Answer: D

  4. Which of the following best describes Stakeholders?
    • A. People who may have positive and negative influence on the project.
    • B. End users
    • C. Sponsor and the team
    • D. The Public

    Correct Answer: A

  5. When do stakeholders have the most influence on a project?
    • At the beginning of the project.
    • In the middle of the project.
    • At the end of the project.
    • Throughout the project

    Correct Answer: D

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About Sparsh Goyal

A passionate IT professional, Sparsh Goyal boasts of 4.3+ years of experience. He has worked for various projects under AWS, Google Cloud Platform, Spring Boot, Python, Microservices, RESTful, RESTFUL APIs/SOAP, Scripting, Shell and JAVA. He is also working towards gaining proficiency in Oracle Cloud PaaS, DevOps, SaaS and Docker/Kubernetes. His primary and secondary skills validate his relentless pursuits of expanding his horizon and developing more as an IT person. He boasts of the following certifications: *Google Professional Cloud Security Engineer. *AWS Cloud Solutions Architect Associate. *Oracle certified JAVA programmer.
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